Tonle Sap is a combined lake and riversystem of major importance to Cambodia. The Tonlé Sap is the largest freshwater lake in South East Asia and is an ecological hot spot that was designated as a UNESCO biosphere in 1997. The Tonlé Sap is unusual for two reasons: its flow changes direction twice a year, and the portion that forms the lake expands and shrinks dramatically with the seasons. From November to May, Cambodia's dry season, the Tonlé Sap drains into the Mekong River at Phnom Penh. However, when the year's heavy rains begin in June, the Tonlé Sap backs up to form an enormous lake. According to our guide anyone with conical hats was a Vietnamese refuge resented in Cambodian territory. Unfortunately, poverty in these parts has left the area riddled with no infrastructure, bad health and bad sanitation.